Driver of Student Learning: Teaching Strategies Print or save as PDF

How is it defined?

Teaching strategies are the various methods educators use in their teaching practice and cover a wide range of techniques. Common themes that permeate effective teaching strategies include pre-planning, criteria for success, and consistent feedback (Hattie, 2009). The Learning Bar’s measures are inspired by the model of instruction set out by Anderson (2004), who defined effective teachers as ‘those who achieve the goals they set for themselves or which they have set for them by others (e.g., ministries of education, legislators and other government officials, school administrators)’ (p. 22). His perspective, that effective teachers are goal-oriented, is evident in most of the contemporary models of effective instruction (Coe, Aloisi, Higgins, & Major, 2014).

The Learning Bar’s Teacher Survey is a self-evaluation tool for teachers that is based on ‘effective schools’ research, consisting of eight of the most important variables associated with the drivers of student learning, and coupled with the Outward Bound model of teaching and learning covered in John Hattie’s book, Visible Learning (Hattie, 2009).

Why is it important?

  • Teachers should clearly communicate the intentions of a lesson as well as the criteria for successful learning (Hattie, 2009).
  • Subject-specific teaching approaches have the greatest influence on student learning (Seidel & Shavelson, 2007).
  • Learner-centered teaching, which is often characterized by empathy, warmth, student regulated learning, and the use of higher order thinking skills, is associated with positive student outcomes (Cornelius-White, 2007).
  • Feedback has a powerful influence on enhancing achievement, particularly when it is clearly stated, has purpose and meaning, and builds upon and provides logical connections to a student’s prior knowledge (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).

How do we measure it?

Teachers respond to eight items on a five-point scale which is scored as follows: 0 (Strongly Disagree), 1 (Disagree), 2 (Neither Agree nor Disagree), 3 (Agree), and 4 (Strongly Agree).  The data are scaled on a 10-point scale and the results are reported as ‘the average score for teaching strategies’.



Anderson, L. W. (2004). Increasing teacher effectiveness (2nd ed). Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.

Coe, R., Aloisi, C., Higgins, S., & Major, L. E. (2014). What makes great teaching? Review of the underpinning research. Durham University: Centre for Evaluation and Monitoring.

Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research77(1), 113-143.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112.

Seidel, T., & Shavelson, R. J. (2007). Teaching effectiveness research in the past decade: The role of theory and research design in disentangling meta-analysis results. Review of Educational Research77(4), 454-499.