Driver of Student Learning: Technology Print or save as PDF

How is it defined?

Technology in the classroom can be defined simply as ‘the use of computing devices for instruction’ (Hew & Brush, 2007, p. 225). Classrooms have evolved to include a variety of technologies, including social media, digital devices and communicative technology, creating new opportunities for student learning and new challenges for educators (Preston, Moffatt, Wiebe, McAuley, Campbell, & Gabriel, 2015).

The Learning Bar’s Teacher Survey is a self-evaluation tool for teachers that is based on ‘effective schools’ research, consisting of eight of the most important variables associated with the drivers of student learning, and coupled with the Outward Bound model of teaching and learning covered in John Hattie’s book, Visible Learning (Hattie, 2009).

Why is it important?

  • Technology can improve student learning, and teachers are an important factor in the successful integration of technology in the classroom (O’Bannon & Judge, 2004).
  • Technology can help provide unique opportunities for learning that would otherwise be unavailable to students (Hew & Brush, 2007).
  • Teachers’ perceptions of the importance of integrating technology in the classroom are incongruent with their actual use of technology in classroom instruction (Hutchison & Reinking, 2011).
  • When using technology for instruction, feedback should be succinct and task-focused, and provided for both correct and incorrect responses (Lefevre & Cox, 2016).

How do we measure it?

Teachers respond to eight items on a five-point scale which is scored as follows: 0 (Strongly Disagree), 1 (Disagree), 2 (Neither Agree nor Disagree), 3 (Agree), and 4 (Strongly Agree). The data are scaled on a 10-point scale and the results are reported as ‘the average score for technology’.



Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge.

Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2007). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational Technology Research and Development55(3), 223-252.

Hutchison, A., & Reinking, D. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of integrating information and communication technologies into literacy instruction: A national survey in the United States. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(4), 312-333.

Lefevre, D., & Cox, B. (2016). Feedback in technology‐based instruction: Learner preferences. British Journal of Educational Technology47(2), 248-256.

O’Bannon, B., & Judge, S. (2004). Implementing partnerships across the curriculum with technology. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37(2), 197-216.

Preston, J. P., Moffatt, L., Wiebe, S., McAuley, A., Campbell, B., & Gabriel, M. (2015). The use of technology in Prince Edward Island (Canada) high schools: Perceptions of school leaders. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 43(6), 989-1005.

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