How is it defined?
Feedback can be viewed as information delivered by an agent regarding performance or understanding (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Feedback has a powerful impact on student achievement and is especially effective when a reciprocal feedback climate is developed between students and teachers (Hattie, 2009).
The Learning Bar’s Teacher Survey is a self-evaluation tool for teachers that is based on ‘effective schools’ research, consisting of eight of the most important variables associated with student outcomes, and coupled with the Outward Bound model of teaching and learning covered in John Hattie’s book, Visible Learning (Hattie, 2009).
Why is it important?
- Effective teachers monitor student understanding through regular feedback (Porter & Brophy, 1988).
- An ideal climate for learning involves both teachers and students seeking feedback from each other related to criteria for success, progress towards goals, and new challenges (Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Hattie, 2009).
- Feedback is most effective when it gives information on correct rather than incorrect responses (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996).
- Specific feedback can help clarify goals, relieve uncertainty, and provide information about reducing the discrepancy between current and desired performance levels (Hattie & Timperley 2007; Shute, 2008).
- Feedback from school leaders on observed lessons can result in improvements in teacher planning, reflection, creativity, and efficacy (Blase & Blase, 2000).
How do we measure it?
Teachers respond to 16 items, which cut across the eight constructs pertaining to school climate. Each item is responded to on a five-point scale which is scored as follows: 0 (Strongly Disagree), 1 (Disagree), 2 (Neither Agree nor Disagree), 3 (Agree), and 4 (Strongly Agree). The data are scaled on a 10-point scale and the results are reported as ‘the average score for quality feedback’. These 16 items are a combination of items used to construct the eight drivers of student learning: leadership, collaboration, learning culture, data informs practice, teaching strategies, technology, inclusive school and parent involvement.
Blase, J., & Blase, J. (2000). Effective instructional leadership: Teachers' perspectives on how principals promote teaching and learning in schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 38(2), 130-141.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112.
Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254-284.
Porter, A., & Brophy, J. E. (1988). Synthesis of research on good teaching: Insights from the work of the institute for research on teaching. Educational Leadership, 45(8), 74-85.
Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153-189.