How is it defined?
Homework is intended to give students opportunities to review work and practice skills taught in class, study for tests, and prepare for upcoming lessons (Epstein & Van Voorhis, 2001). Educators can create effective homework assignments for all learners by setting clear goals and expectations for homework that are communicated to both students and parents (Carr, 2013).
The Learning Bar’s framework on student engagement includes measures of social, institutional, and intellectual engagement. Institutional engagement refers to active participation in the formal requirements for school success, such as valuing schooling outcomes, attendance, student behaviour, positive homework behaviour, and homework time.
Why is it important?
- Well-designed and properly implemented homework assignments can effectively reinforce classroom learning (Carr, 2013).
- Homework time in early grades facilitates the development of study skills (Cooper, Lindsay, Nye, & Greathouse, 1998).
- There is a positive association between time spent on homework and student achievement (Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 2006).
- Homework time is most closely associated with achievement in secondary schooling (Cooper & Valentine, 2001).
How do we measure it?
In OurSCHOOL, in both the primary and secondary school surveys, students are asked to indicate how much time they spend on a typical week-day doing homework or studying. The results are reported as “the average number of hours per day spent doing homework”.
Carr, N. S. (2013). Increasing the effectiveness of homework for all learners in the inclusive classroom. School Community Journal, 23(1), 169-182.
Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., Nye, B., & Greathouse, S. (1998). Relationships among attitudes about homework, amount of homework assigned and completed, and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 70-83.
Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987–2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1-62.
Cooper, H., & Valentine, J.C. (2001). Using research to answer practical questions about homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 143-153.
Epstein, J. L., & Van Voorhis, F. L. (2001). More than minutes: Teachers' roles in designing homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 181-193.